Le Low (part of the book The works of Mencius) & Tang Wan Kung

Tracing the Origins of Humanist Philosophy in Early China*
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gatkewophoda.cf/2559.php The Eighteen Provinces, together with Sin-kiang, are under eight governors general or viceroys Tsung-tu or Che-t'ai and twelve governors, three of whom are independent. Each province is presided over by a governor, Siun-fu, Fu-t'ai except Chi-li, Fu-kien, Kan-su, Sze-ch'wan, Kwang-tung, Yun-nan, and Kan-su; there is one in Sin-kiang; the Fu-t'ai of Shang-tung, Shan-si, and Ho-nan are not under a governor-general, but are directly under Peking.

Immediately after the governor are the high provincial treasurer Pu-cheng She-sze or Fan-t'ai , the high provincial judge Ngan-ch'a She-sze or Nieh-t'ai , the salt controller Yen-yun She-sze , and the grain intendant Liang-tao ; these various officials constitute each provincial government under the collective name of Tu-fu Sze-tao. Next in order come the Fen-siun Tao; the intendant of a circuit Tao-t'ai in all , the prefect of a Fu Che-fu , the T'ung-che ; the T'ung-p'an ; the Che-chou ; the Che Hien, district magnate ; there is a Hio-cheng Hio-yuan, Hio-t'ai , or provincial director of instruction in each province, who presides at the prefectural examinations.

The Chinese functionaries known to Europeans as Mandarin from mandar , to command are called Kwan by the Chinese; there are nine ranks of kwan, divided into civil and military officials, who are distinguished by the button worn on the official hat, by the square embroidered badge on the breast and back of official robes a bird for the civil, a quadruped for the military, and by the clasp of the girdle. A provincial official down to Tao-t'ai inclusive is styled Ta-jen great man ; from Che Fu to Che Hien, the name is Ta Lao-ye great old father ; for the rest Lao-ye old father.

Various forms of distinction are awarded for public services; the principle if the Ling-che the feather of which there are three grades corresponding to degrees of distinction: the three-eyed, the two-eyed, and the one-eyed peacock feather K'ung Tsio-ling and the crow feather Lan-ling, blue feather. The chief distinction for military men is the Hing-kwa or Hwang-ma-kwa yellow riding jacket. There are nine degrees of nobility, either transmissible to a certain number of ancestors or descendants she-si , or hereditary forever she-si-wang : Kung duke , Hou marquis , Pe earl--together designated as Ch'ao P'in , Tze viscount , Nan baron , K'ing-ch'e Tu-yu, K'i-tu-yu, Yun-k'i-yu.

The translations sometimes given the first five titles are indicated in parentheses. The residence of a mandarin holding a seal is called Yamen ; that of a mandarin without a seal, Kung-su. Memory was developed at the expense of critical faculty, science being almost entirely neglected. A good calligraphy and a thorough knowledge of the Confucian classic were the main requisites for passing an examination, in which an essay on texts selected from these three classic, and called wen-chang , played a considerable part.

The wen-chang, suppressed in during the short period of reform, has been definitely abolished. The civil offices were recruited from those who passed the three examinations: Hiang-she provincial , held triennially in the autumn; Hwai-she metropolitan held at Peking, in the spring; Tien-she, the palace examination. The student T'ung-sheng took in succession the three degrees: Siu-ts'ai, Ku-jen, and Tsin-she; at the last examination the first four competitors received the titles of Chwang Yuan, Pang yen, T'an Hwa, and Ch'wan Lu.

After the war with Russia , China felt the necessity of a thorough change; Confucianism was no longer a sufficient weapon against Western enterprise. Elementary, higher primary, middle, higher, and special schools were established on foreign principles. A university and a technical school were opened at Peking, while young students were sent abroad, especially to Japan.

It must be admitted that the latter brought back from the Empire of the Rising Sun an entirely new spirit. They have been responsible, to a great extent, for the reorganization of the secret societies , which aim not only at reform, but also at the overthrow of the present dynasty. By an imperial decree which was dated 2 Sept. This includes the study of the Chinese language, literature, and composition, the various sciences studied in the West, history, geography, foreign languages, especially Japanese , gymnastic exercises and drills, and in the higher grades the study of political economy, and civil and international law.

As a natural consequence, new degrees corresponding to B. It is evident that the Chinese attitude of mind is undergoing a great change through contact with Western ideas and learning; what is less evident is that deeper layers of the nation have not been reached. Philosophy Chinese philosophy, at least in what is fundamental, is embodied in the religious books, or rather in the classical works called "King".

Confucius was more of a collector than a creator; he was a moral teacher, imbued with traditions he had studied and mastered, and of which he was the ideal representative, but he was no inventor. The man who stamped Chinese philosophy with his strong personality , or rather his genius, was the philosopher Chu Hi A. He had a retreat for intervals of meditation at the White Deer Grotto in the hills near P'o-Yang lake. The "Book of Changes" Y-king begins with the T'ai-ki , the Great Absolute; according to Chu Hi there was in the beginning the primordial principle, the abstract monad called the "absolute nothing", Wu-ki.

When moving, the Great Absolute produced by the congealing of its breath, the Yang , the great male principle; when it finally rested in produced the Yin , or the great female principle; after this great division what was above was heaven , beneath was earth, and during the subsequent evolutions and movement were created in turn, the sun and the moon, the stars and the planets, water and fire, men and animals, vegetables and minerals, etc. Four laws regulate the present movement of the two principles: 1 Hi , the breath of nature, governed not by arbitrary but by fixed, inscrutable laws ; 2 Li , the laws of nature; 3 So , the numbers or numerical proportions of the universe ; 3 Ying , the appearance of forms of nature.

This philosophical system is represented by diagrams. Sometimes the three powers of nature San-t'sai , i. A new combination of these figures was revealed to Fu-hi B. An octagonal arrangement devised by the philosophers of the Sung dynasty gives the figures called Sien-tien. Shen-nung, the second of the Five Emperors, is held to have multiplied by eight the original Kwa of Fu-hi, forming sixty-four hexagrams. This number multiplied by six gives , the maximum to which the calculations can be carried practically, though it is stated that a series of 16,, different forms can be obtained.

COLLECTION OF TREATISES ON THE RULES OF PROPRIETY OR CEREMONIAL USAGES.

The two principles forming the Tai-ki were sometimes represented by two opposite semi-circles in a circle, the two portions of the circle in dark and clear respectively; later on a dark disk was inserted in the clear portion and a clear disk in the dark portions. The male and female principles may also be represented by a circle and a square; for instance at Peking the Temple of Heaven is circular while the Temple of Earth is square; the common coin called cash being round with a square hole in the centre is a perfect symbol of Heaven and Earth.

Classics The doctrine of Confucius and his school is contained in the classical books called "King". Five of the classics of the highest grade include: 1 The "Y-king" Book of Changes with 24, characters; 2 the "Shu-king" Book of History in fifty-eight chapters with 25, characters extends from the Emperors Yao and Shun to Ping Wang of the Chou dynasty B. The "Yo-king" Book of Music was lost. Next came the lesser "King": 1 the "Sze-shu" Four Books , "Ta-hio" Great Study , "Chung-yung" Invariable Medium , "Lun-yu" miscellaneous conversations between Confucius and his disciples , and "Meng-tze", the conversation of the sage Mencius 34, characters; with the commentary , ; 2 the two rituals, "I-li and "Chou-li" 45, characters ; 3 the Hiao-king" Book of Filial Piety with characters ; 4 the three ancient commentators of the "Ch'un-ts'ew": "Tso-shi", "Kung-yang", and "Ku-liang"; 5 the "Eul-ya" Library Exposition , a dictionary of terms used in the classical writing of the same period.

It must be borne in mind that Confucius was an administrator, a statesman, in a word, a practical man, as well as a moralist, but not entirely devoid of originality. The most distinguished followers of Confucius b. The rival of Confucius was Lao-tze, or Lao-kiun, a far deeper philosopher , author of the "Tao-teh-king" and of the "Kan-ying-pien", with his disciples, Kang-sang-tze B. The heterodox philosophers were Meh-ti B. State religions The three state religions of China San-kiao or three doctrines , are Confucianism , Taoism, and Buddhism.

The state worship includes three grades of sacrifices , the victims being things, though persons are not excluded: 1 the great sacrifices offered only to T'ien Heaven , Ti Earth , Tai Miao the great temple of ancestors and Shieh-tsi gods of the land and grain ; 2 the medium sacrifices , an homage to the sun, the moon, the names of emperors and kings of foreign dynasties, Confucius , the ancient patrons of agriculture and silk, the gods of heaven , earth, and the cyclic year; 3 the inferior sacrifices Kiun-sze , crowd of sacrifices offered to the patron of medicine, the spirits of celebrated men, the clouds, rain, wind, and thunder, the five celebrated mountains, the four seas, four rivers, etc.

The supreme ruler of heaven is Shiang-ti. There is no priesthood in Confucianism. Taoism, or Tao-kiao , was invented by the disciples of Lao-tze, but the lofty theories of this philosopher have denigrated to the grossest superstitions , alchemy , astrology , and a worship of a pantheon of idols, the highest of which is Yu-hwang Shang-ti; the chief of the Taoists resides at Lung-hu-shan Kiang-si ; most of the hierarchy are extremely ignorant.

The first certain fact regarding Chinese Buddhism is that it was orally taught in the year 2 B. The search for manuscripts in India led pilgrims like Fa-hian and Sung-yun Fo-kwo-ki , Hwei-shin, the celebrated Hiuan-tsang seventh century , I-tsing, Wang-Hiuan-ts'e, Wu-k'ung and others to undertake long voyages which have thrown great light on the geography of Northern India and Central Asia. In spite of their exertions and of the numerous manuscripts they brought home, it was not until that the Chinese procured a complete copy of the Buddhist canon; some of the Buddhist sanctuaries are famous places of pilgrimage : the island of P'u-tu Chu-san , the Wu T'ai-shan Shan-si ; the Omei-shan Sze-ch'an , the Dokerla Yun-nan.

The Buddhist priests gather in monasteries ; the superiors of a district or a prefecture are called Seng-lu-tze ; they are selected from the leading abbots fang-chang ; besides the superiors Seng-kang, Seng-chen, Seng-hwei , there are preceptors, preachers, expositors, and clerks. Buddhism , with its numerous monks , is the most popular religion of China, though a member of one sect very often borrows practices from the others cults and, if an official, will invariably perform the ceremonies of Confucianism.

Ancestor worship originated in filial piety which, being of paramount importance in the eyes of the Chinese, is the object of a special book, the "Hiao-king".

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Filial piety , however, is not a natural, spontaneous feeling, but a well-defined duty , embracing the obligations towards the emperor, princes, officials, parents , and these vary according to the classes and people. In every house there is a tablet, if not a room; a rich family has a separate building; this is the hall of ancestors; the tablets are called p'ai-wei and the temples tze-t'ang.

Five Chinese Classics

During the period called tsing-ming , in the first part of April, a general worship of ancestors takes place in the form of libations, and the burning of candles, paper and incense ; this cult was prohibited the Christians by a Bull of Another great and popular superstition is Fung-shui wind and water. To describe this is impossible, though it is the daily guide in a Chinaman's life. It is a system of geomancy founded on the "Y-king", systematized in the twelfth century; the date of a marriage, the proper place for a burial ground, a lucky site for a building, etc.

Foreign relations Some commentators have found China in this passage of Isaias : "these from the land of Sinim. Strabo, Virgil, Horace, Pomponius Mela, Pliny, and Ammianus, speak of the Seres , and they are mentioned by Florence among the nations which sent special embassies to Rome at the time of Augustus. The monk Cosmos had a correct idea of the position of China sixth century. The Byzantine writer, Theophylactus Simocatta seventh century gave an account of China under the name Taugas.

There is a Chinese record of a Roman embassy in A. The sea voyages of Arabs and the pilgrimages of Chinese Buddhists have thrown considerable light on the geography of Asia during the Middle Ages. Finally, the Portuguese settled on the island of Hiang-shan at Macao , either in or The first English vessel that visited China reached there by accident.

It was the Unicorn which, going from Bantam to Japan , was cast by a storm on the east coast of Macao , at the end of June, In Captain Weddell explored the Canton River. The first English company organized for the purpose of trading with India , commonly called the "Old Company" was incorporated by Queen Elizabeth, 31 Dec. The Russians crossed the Ural mountains in the middle of the sixteenth century under Ivan IV and subjugated Siberia; from the Lena River they passed, in , into the basin of Amur.

Stephanof, one of their chiefs, met the Chinese for the first time in , when exploring the Sungari River. After withstanding two sieges of their principal fort, Albasin, the Russians signed a treaty with the Chinese at Nerchinsk 27 Aug. In Count Sava Vladislavitch signed a treaty regulating the inland trade between the two countries. In the French organized a "Compagnie de Chine" which in was amalgamated with the "Compagnie des Indes" which gave up its China privileges in to "Compagnie Jourdan, la Coulange et Cie", which made Canton a trading centre.

New companies were organized for the commerce of China in October, , and November, Finally, in , all the companies were merged into the "Compagnie des Indes", whose privilege was suspended in , and which was finally dissolved, 3 April, A French consulate was established at Canton 3 Feb. The Danes had two companies organized in and Austria was represented by the Ostend Company, incorporated 17 Dec. Prussia had the Emden Company. On 14 June, , a charter was granted by King Frederick of Sweden to a company organized at Gothenburg.

Trading was carried on at Canton through privileged merchants called Hong merchants, whose council, called Co-hong , was incorporated in Their number carried, but never exceeded thirteen. The foreign merchants traded in thirteen hongs , or factories, extending about feet from the banks of the Pearl River, and about broad. The Hong merchants, hard pressed by the Hoppo , or custom mandarin, ran into debt with the foreign merchants.

A visit of Commodore Anson , a special mission of Captain Panton, even a transfer to another part of the empire, did not remedy the numerous grievances of the Europeans , who were not allowed to reside permanently at Canton, but were compelled to retire to Macao when business was done. Macartney reached Peking 21 Aug. Still less successful was the embassy of Lord Amherst Lord Napier, who was sent on special mission in , died worn out by his negotiations. Grievances continued to increase year after year, until the destruction June, of 20, chests of opium by Commander Lin brought matters to a climax.

Ting-hai Chusan was captured, 7 July, Amoy was captured 27 August, Ning-po 13 Oct. Finally a treaty of thirteen articles was signed at Nan-king by Pottinger and Ki-yang, 29 August, , on board the Cornwallis. Canton, Amoy, Fu-chou, Ning-po, and Shanghai were to be opened to trade, and consuls appointed to reside at each of these cities. Davis, Governor of Hong-Kong. Hong-Kong had been declared a free port, 6 Feb. The advantages, however, obtained through the treaty of Nan-king were soon found insufficient.

The murder of the French priest Chapdelaine in Kwang-si 26 Feb. The bombardment of Canton Oct, , the great rebellion in India May, , the appointment of Lord Elgin and Baron Gros as envoys to China by the two belligerents, the capture of Canton 29 Dec. These treaties permitted the appointment of French and English ambassadors to Peking, and allowed the Chinese a like privilege of appointing ambassadors at the Court of St.

James and the court of Paris , provided for the opening of the ports of New-chwang, Tang-chou Che-fu , Tai-wan Formosa , Chao-chou Swatow , and Kiung-chou Hai-nan , granted an indemnity of 2,, taels for damages to the British and a like sum to both powers for war expenses, besides an indemnity to French subjects for the loss sustained through plunder, when Canton was taken, and guaranteed the punishment of the murderer of Father Chapdelaine. On the 25th of June, , the plenipotentiaries, Bruce and Bourboulon, who were on their way to Peking to have these treaties ratified, were fired upon by the Taku forts.

A second war ensued. The forts of Taku were recaptured 21 Aug. The allies marched passed T'ien-tsin, and after withstanding a treacherous attack by the Chinese at Tung-chou 18 Sept. Wan-shou-shan, another part of the imperial summer resort, was burnt by order of Lord Elgin 18 Oct.

The emperor fled to Shehol, and his brother, Prince Kung, who had remained at Peking, signed the Conventions of 24 and 25 Oct. The indemnity was raised to 8,, taels, and Kow-loon, opposite Hong-Kong, was ceded to England as a dependency of this island. A like indemnity was to be paid to France , and T'ien-tsin was to be opened to trade. A still earlier treaty had been made with Russia at Aigun 18 May, and signed by Muraviev.

The final result of these various treaties was a rectification of the frontier between Russia and China, the Amur and Usuri rivers forming the new boundary lines. The wretched Hien Fung, who had replaced Tao-kwang in , died 22 Aug.

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With the help of foreigners, the American, Ward, the English general, Gordon, and the "Ever Victorious Army", the French admiral Protet, Lebrethon, and others, the T'ai-p'ing rebels, who had captured Nan-king 19 March, and made a raid on T'ien-tsin, were expelled from Su-chou 4 Dec. In , a special embassy headed by Anson Burlingame, formerly American Minister to Peking, was sent to the Western countries.

They went first to the United States. Burlingame died at St. A few months afterward news was received of the awful massacre of French and Russian subjects by the Chinese at T'ien-tsin, 21 June, A mission under Chung-hou was sent to Versailles to apologize for this. T'ung-chi married, Oct. Relations were strained between Japan and China, owing to an attack made by the aborigines of southern Formosa on the wrecked crew of a Luch'uan junk, and for a time war seemed inevitable.

Through British intervention however, satisfaction was obtained by Japan , and an agreement between the two Asiatic nations was signed at Peking, 31 Oct. T'ung-chi died 12 Jan, The situation in China at this time presented many difficulties. There were grave questions to be settled with England , Russia , and France. On 21 Feb. Margary, was murdered at Manwyne Yun-nan , and an attack was made on the British exploring party from Burma headed by Colonel Horace A. Browne, which Margary had preceded. Protracted and knotty negotiations conducted by the British minister, Thomas F.

Wade, led to the conclusion of the convention signed at Che-fu, 13 Sept. According to this: regulations were to be framed for the frontier trade of Yun-nan; British officials were to be stationed at Ta-li, or some other suitable place in Yun-nan, for a period of five years; the viceroy of India was given permission to send a mission to this province; the indemnity was fixed at , taels; China was to establish missions and consulates abroad; the ports of I'ch'ang, Wu-hu, Wen-chou, and Pak-hoi were to be opened to trade; British officers might be sent to Ch'ung-k'ing which was to be opened to trade when steamers succeeded in ascending the river.

A special mission, including Hon. Grosvenor, A. Davenport, and E. Baber, was sent to Yun-nan to witness the trial and the punishment of the murderers of Margary. The Russians , who had signed a treaty with China, 25 July, , at Kuldja, took possession of this region 4 July, , during the rebellion of Yakub. When the Mohammedan rising was crushed by Tso Tsung-tang , China claimed the territory occupied temporarily by Russia.

A special Chinese mission with Ch'ung-hou as chief was sent to Russia and concluded a treaty at Livadia Oct. The contested territory was ceded, together with the Muzart Pass, to Russia , and great inland commercial facilities were also granted to Muscovite merchants. Ch'ung-hou was denounced by the censor, Chang Chi-tung, and sentenced to death ; his treaty came to nought. It was a casus belli , but the intervention of England and France prevented the war.

Tseng Kai-tze, the Chinese minister in Paris , was sent to St.

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Petersburg, where he signed a treaty restoring to China the greater part of the Ili and the Muzart Pass Feb. The third difficulty arose through the occupation of Tong-king by France. China interfered, as the suzerain power of Annam. Admiral Courbet bombarded the Fu-chou arsenal 23 Aug. France retained possession of Tong-king. Emperor Kwang Siu came of age 7 Feb. On 26 Feb. The imperial audience took place 5 March, For a long time, matters had gone from bad to worse between China and Japan , Korea being the coveted prey of both nations.

The murder of the Korean Kim-ok Kyum, a friend of the Japanese , by his countryman, Hung Tjung-wu, at Shang-hai 28 March, , and the attack made on the steamship, Kow-shin by the Japanese at the mouth of the Ya-lu River 25 July, were the starting points of a war. The principal events during the course of this war were: the battle of Sei-kwan 29 July ; a declaration of war 1 Aug. The negotiations between Li Hung-chang, who had been wounded by a fanatic Japanese , and Ito and Mutsu, resulted in the signing of the treaty of Shimonoseki 17 April, The principle articles of this treaty were the cession of Liao-tung, Formosa, and the Pescadores to the Japanese , an indemnity of ,, Kuping taels to be paid by China, the opening to Japanese trade of Sha-shi or Kin-chow Hu-pe , Chung-k'ing, Su-chou, and Hang-chou, etc.

Korea fell entirely into the hands of the Japanese. Ostensibly to obtain satisfaction for the murder of two missionaries, the Germans seized Kiao-chou Bay Shan-tung 14 Nov. Following the example of Germany , Russia obtained a similar lease of Ta-lien-wa and the adjacent waters 27 March ; England , Wei-hai-wei 2 April, ; France , Kwang-chou-wan 27 May, On 9 June the territory of Kow-loon ceded to Great Britain was extended to include Deep Bay and Mir's Bay; moreover, various declarations stipulated the non-alienation by China of the Yang-tze valley 11 Feb.

Prince Kung died, 29 May From 10 June, , until 20 Sept. There followed a terrible reaction, which culminated in the Boxer rebellion. This began in Shang-tung and extended to Chi-li, secretly fostered by the empress dowager and her camarilla, Prince Twan, and General Tung Fu-siang. Everywhere missionaries were murdered. The German minister, Von Ketteler , was murdered 20 June ; the legations at Peking were besieged by troops and the infuriated mob. A relief column, under the command of the English admiral, Sir Edward Seymore, failed to reach the capital. A French consulate was established at Canton 3 Feb.

The Danes had two companies organized in and Austria was represented by the Ostend Company, incorporated 17 Dec. Prussia had the Emden Company. On 14 June, , a charter was granted by King Frederick of Sweden to a company organized at Gothenburg. Trading was carried on at Canton through privileged merchants called Hong merchants, whose council, called Co-hong , was incorporated in Their number carried, but never exceeded thirteen.

The foreign merchants traded in thirteen hongs , or factories, extending about feet from the banks of the Pearl River, and about broad. The Hong merchants, hard pressed by the Hoppo , or custom mandarin, ran into debt with the foreign merchants. A visit of Commodore Anson , a special mission of Captain Panton, even a transfer to another part of the empire, did not remedy the numerous grievances of the Europeans , who were not allowed to reside permanently at Canton, but were compelled to retire to Macao when business was done.

Macartney reached Peking 21 Aug. Still less successful was the embassy of Lord Amherst Lord Napier, who was sent on special mission in , died worn out by his negotiations. Grievances continued to increase year after year, until the destruction June, of 20, chests of opium by Commander Lin brought matters to a climax.

Ting-hai Chusan was captured, 7 July, Amoy was captured 27 August, Ning-po 13 Oct. Finally a treaty of thirteen articles was signed at Nan-king by Pottinger and Ki-yang, 29 August, , on board the Cornwallis. Canton, Amoy, Fu-chou, Ning-po, and Shanghai were to be opened to trade, and consuls appointed to reside at each of these cities. Davis, Governor of Hong-Kong. Hong-Kong had been declared a free port, 6 Feb. The advantages, however, obtained through the treaty of Nan-king were soon found insufficient.

The murder of the French priest Chapdelaine in Kwang-si 26 Feb. The bombardment of Canton Oct, , the great rebellion in India May, , the appointment of Lord Elgin and Baron Gros as envoys to China by the two belligerents, the capture of Canton 29 Dec. These treaties permitted the appointment of French and English ambassadors to Peking, and allowed the Chinese a like privilege of appointing ambassadors at the Court of St.

James and the court of Paris , provided for the opening of the ports of New-chwang, Tang-chou Che-fu , Tai-wan Formosa , Chao-chou Swatow , and Kiung-chou Hai-nan , granted an indemnity of 2,, taels for damages to the British and a like sum to both powers for war expenses, besides an indemnity to French subjects for the loss sustained through plunder, when Canton was taken, and guaranteed the punishment of the murderer of Father Chapdelaine.

On the 25th of June, , the plenipotentiaries, Bruce and Bourboulon, who were on their way to Peking to have these treaties ratified, were fired upon by the Taku forts. A second war ensued. The forts of Taku were recaptured 21 Aug. The allies marched passed T'ien-tsin, and after withstanding a treacherous attack by the Chinese at Tung-chou 18 Sept. Wan-shou-shan, another part of the imperial summer resort, was burnt by order of Lord Elgin 18 Oct. The emperor fled to Shehol, and his brother, Prince Kung, who had remained at Peking, signed the Conventions of 24 and 25 Oct. The indemnity was raised to 8,, taels, and Kow-loon, opposite Hong-Kong, was ceded to England as a dependency of this island.

Mencius

A like indemnity was to be paid to France , and T'ien-tsin was to be opened to trade. A still earlier treaty had been made with Russia at Aigun 18 May, and signed by Muraviev. The final result of these various treaties was a rectification of the frontier between Russia and China, the Amur and Usuri rivers forming the new boundary lines. The wretched Hien Fung, who had replaced Tao-kwang in , died 22 Aug. With the help of foreigners, the American, Ward, the English general, Gordon, and the "Ever Victorious Army", the French admiral Protet, Lebrethon, and others, the T'ai-p'ing rebels, who had captured Nan-king 19 March, and made a raid on T'ien-tsin, were expelled from Su-chou 4 Dec.

In , a special embassy headed by Anson Burlingame, formerly American Minister to Peking, was sent to the Western countries. They went first to the United States. Burlingame died at St. A few months afterward news was received of the awful massacre of French and Russian subjects by the Chinese at T'ien-tsin, 21 June, A mission under Chung-hou was sent to Versailles to apologize for this. T'ung-chi married, Oct. Relations were strained between Japan and China, owing to an attack made by the aborigines of southern Formosa on the wrecked crew of a Luch'uan junk, and for a time war seemed inevitable.

Through British intervention however, satisfaction was obtained by Japan , and an agreement between the two Asiatic nations was signed at Peking, 31 Oct. T'ung-chi died 12 Jan, The situation in China at this time presented many difficulties. There were grave questions to be settled with England , Russia , and France. On 21 Feb. Margary, was murdered at Manwyne Yun-nan , and an attack was made on the British exploring party from Burma headed by Colonel Horace A.

Browne, which Margary had preceded. Protracted and knotty negotiations conducted by the British minister, Thomas F. Wade, led to the conclusion of the convention signed at Che-fu, 13 Sept. According to this: regulations were to be framed for the frontier trade of Yun-nan; British officials were to be stationed at Ta-li, or some other suitable place in Yun-nan, for a period of five years; the viceroy of India was given permission to send a mission to this province; the indemnity was fixed at , taels; China was to establish missions and consulates abroad; the ports of I'ch'ang, Wu-hu, Wen-chou, and Pak-hoi were to be opened to trade; British officers might be sent to Ch'ung-k'ing which was to be opened to trade when steamers succeeded in ascending the river.

A special mission, including Hon. Grosvenor, A. Davenport, and E. Baber, was sent to Yun-nan to witness the trial and the punishment of the murderers of Margary. The Russians , who had signed a treaty with China, 25 July, , at Kuldja, took possession of this region 4 July, , during the rebellion of Yakub. When the Mohammedan rising was crushed by Tso Tsung-tang , China claimed the territory occupied temporarily by Russia. A special Chinese mission with Ch'ung-hou as chief was sent to Russia and concluded a treaty at Livadia Oct.

The contested territory was ceded, together with the Muzart Pass, to Russia , and great inland commercial facilities were also granted to Muscovite merchants. Ch'ung-hou was denounced by the censor, Chang Chi-tung, and sentenced to death ; his treaty came to nought. It was a casus belli , but the intervention of England and France prevented the war. Tseng Kai-tze, the Chinese minister in Paris , was sent to St. Petersburg, where he signed a treaty restoring to China the greater part of the Ili and the Muzart Pass Feb. The third difficulty arose through the occupation of Tong-king by France.

China interfered, as the suzerain power of Annam. Admiral Courbet bombarded the Fu-chou arsenal 23 Aug. France retained possession of Tong-king. Emperor Kwang Siu came of age 7 Feb. On 26 Feb. The imperial audience took place 5 March, For a long time, matters had gone from bad to worse between China and Japan , Korea being the coveted prey of both nations. The murder of the Korean Kim-ok Kyum, a friend of the Japanese , by his countryman, Hung Tjung-wu, at Shang-hai 28 March, , and the attack made on the steamship, Kow-shin by the Japanese at the mouth of the Ya-lu River 25 July, were the starting points of a war.

The principal events during the course of this war were: the battle of Sei-kwan 29 July ; a declaration of war 1 Aug. The negotiations between Li Hung-chang, who had been wounded by a fanatic Japanese , and Ito and Mutsu, resulted in the signing of the treaty of Shimonoseki 17 April, The principle articles of this treaty were the cession of Liao-tung, Formosa, and the Pescadores to the Japanese , an indemnity of ,, Kuping taels to be paid by China, the opening to Japanese trade of Sha-shi or Kin-chow Hu-pe , Chung-k'ing, Su-chou, and Hang-chou, etc.

Korea fell entirely into the hands of the Japanese. Ostensibly to obtain satisfaction for the murder of two missionaries, the Germans seized Kiao-chou Bay Shan-tung 14 Nov. Following the example of Germany , Russia obtained a similar lease of Ta-lien-wa and the adjacent waters 27 March ; England , Wei-hai-wei 2 April, ; France , Kwang-chou-wan 27 May, On 9 June the territory of Kow-loon ceded to Great Britain was extended to include Deep Bay and Mir's Bay; moreover, various declarations stipulated the non-alienation by China of the Yang-tze valley 11 Feb.

Prince Kung died, 29 May From 10 June, , until 20 Sept. There followed a terrible reaction, which culminated in the Boxer rebellion. This began in Shang-tung and extended to Chi-li, secretly fostered by the empress dowager and her camarilla, Prince Twan, and General Tung Fu-siang.

Everywhere missionaries were murdered. The German minister, Von Ketteler , was murdered 20 June ; the legations at Peking were besieged by troops and the infuriated mob. A relief column, under the command of the English admiral, Sir Edward Seymore, failed to reach the capital. Finally a strong international army entered Peking 14 August, , relieving the legations and the Catholic cathedral Pe-tang , while the emperor, the empress dowager, and the court fled top Si-ngan-fu Shen-si. Peking was looted and left in ruins.

The negotiations were long and involved, and on their completion a protocol was signed at Peking, 7 Sept. An imperial edict of 24 July, , transformed the Tsung-li Yamen into a Ministry of Foreign affairs Wai-wu Pu , which takes precedence over the other ministries of State. The great victories gained by Japan over Russia and the signing of the treaty of Portsmouth 23 Aug. Customs The imperial maritime customs were started in Shanghai in when, threatened by rebels, the collection of dues on foreign trade became impossible. Representatives of the three consuls from Great Britain, France , and the United States , were placed in charge of the custom service, which was inaugurated 12 July, The American and French delegates having retired in the course of years, the British delegate, Horatio N.

The Shanghai system was extended to Canton Oct. The importance of the service has grown with years and now includes also the postal service.

It is divided into four departments: 1 revenue department Indoor, Outdoor, and Coast staff , with foreigners of various nationalities, the majority being British, and Chinese ; 2 marine department; 3 educational department; 4 postal department. An imperial decree of 9 May, , placed at the head of the custom service two high mandarins. At the end of , localities were opened to postal business, and in the number of articles dealt with increased to nearly millions.

The number of parcels reached 1,,, and money transactions taels 1,, Moreover, there are some foreign British, German, French, Japanese , American, Russian postal agencies at some of the treaty ports. On 6 Nov. Other companies are the Imperial German Telegraph Co. It included import duties tls. The gross value of the foreign trade was Hk.

The value of the direct trade: Continent of Europe Russia excepted , tls. The chief imports are: opium, tls. The chief exports are: beancake, tls. Treaty ports Northern ports 1 New-chwang, Shen-king province, Manchuria , in accordance with British Treaty of T'ien-tsin, ; custom office opened 9 May, ; Chinese population, 74, Yang-tze ports 6 Ch'ung-k'ing, Sze-ch'wan; opened Nov.

South Coast ports 21 San-tuao, Fu-kien, imperial decree of 31 March, ; opened 1 May, ; Chinese population As yet, Nan-ning, Kwang-si, opened by imperial decree , 3 Feb. According to the customs statistics , 6,, Chinese inhabit the treaty ports. The foreign population includes firms and 38, persons American , British , Japanese 15,, French , German , Portuguese , Italians , Spaniards , Belgians , Austrians , Russians , Danes , Dutch , Brazilians 16, Koreans 47, Norwegians , Swedes , subjects of non-treaty powers Railways The first railroad was built in , from Wu-sung to Shanghai, but was purchased by the Chinese and taken by them to Formosa in The following is a list of the railways completed and under construction at the end of in Manchuria 1 from Irkutsk through Manchuria through Manchuria , Harbin, Pogranichaya to Vladivostock, miles; 2 from Harbin to Kwang-cheng-tse not completed , miles; 3 from Kwang-cheng-tse through Mukden, Sinmin-fu, Liao-yang, New-chwang, Talien, to Port Arthur, miles in addition to 36 miles under construction ; 4 from Mukden and An-tung narrow gauge , miles under construction; 5 from Kow-pang-tze to Sin-min-fu, 70 miles.

Chi-li: Peking to Tung-chou, 13 miles. Chi-li and Mongolia : Peking through Nan-kou, to Kalgan, 33 miles in addition to 92 miles under construction. Ho-nan: Tao-kou, through Wei-hwei, to Ching-hwa, 93 miles. Chi-li and Shan-si: Chen-ting to Tai-yuan-fu, 87 miles in addition to 68 under construction. Ho-nan: Kai-feng, through Cheng-chou, to Ho-nan-fu, 41 miles in addition to 75 miles under construction.

Kiang-su: Shanghai through Su-chou, Chin-kiang to Nan-king, 90 miles in addition to miles under construction. Che-kiang: Hang-chou City to Hang-chou Settlement, 3 miles, under construction. In Kiang-si and Hu-nan: Yuen-chou to Shui-chou, 64 miles. Kwang-tung: Swatow to Cho-chou-fu, 25 miles; Kung-yik through Sun-ning, to Sam-ka-hoi, 55 miles under construction; Canton to Sam-shui, 30 miles.

Yun-nan: Ho-kou, through Meng-tze to Yun-nan-fu, 19 miles in addition to under construction. The tael is a weight of silver which varies considerably in value; in the Haikwan tael, in which the custom revenues and all values are given, was equivalent to 2. Chinese lump silver, called sycee fine silk , is made into ingots resembling in shape a shoe. The silver experts are called shroff. Calendar The common year has twelve lunar months. In a period of 19 years, there are seven intercalary years, each of 13 months.

Years are reckoned either from the beginning of the reign of the emperor, or from their place in the cycle of 60 years. The sexagenary cycle was devised by Ta-nao, minister of Hwang-ti, the sixty-first year of whose reign B. A common civil year consists of from to days. Social life The family name of a Chinaman is sing. China is called Pe-kia-sing , the "hundred families ". The prenomen is ming-tze ; the Christian name is sheng-ming ; the name given to children by parents nai-ming ; the official name kwan-ming.

An emperor, besides his personal name, has a title as ruler nien-hao , and a dynastic title or posthumous name miao-hao ; some of the emperors have has several nien-hao. Thus Hiuan-yi was the personal name of the emperor, whose nien-ho period was K'ang-hi, and his miao-hao was Sheng Tsu. The marriage ceremonies include the visit to the prospective bride's father and brother by an intermediary mei-jin sent by the prospective bridegroom's father and brother to inquire her name, which is to be examined by the horoscope; if the horoscope be auspicious, the mei-jin is sent to make an offer of marriage which, if accepted, is confirmed in writing; presents are sent to the parent of the bride; a lucky day is selected for the wedding, and the bridegroom sends some of his friends to bring the bride to his house.

The seven valid grounds for divorce are: talkativeness, wantonness, theft, barrenness, disobedience to a husband's parents , jealousy, and inveterate infirmity; to these infidelity has been added. The burial ceremonies are more or less varied, short or long according to the wealth of the deceased, and the dead are buried in graves.

The graves of the Ming emperors at Nan-king and in Mongolia are famous. The emperors of the present dynasty are buried in Chi-li in mausoleums called Tung-li and Si-ling ; their ancestors rest at Mukden. The period of mourning for a father is three years, which is reduced in practice to twenty-seven months.

White is the mourning colour of China; it is blue for the emperor, and the seals are inked in blue instead of vermilion. The main food is rice fan , and as it does not grow in Northern China, great quantities are transported to the southern provinces and Cochin-China. The Chinese use a great deal of oil hiang-yu extracted from the seamum orientale , the Arachis Hypogoea , or the Brassica sinensis. The Chinese drink tea cha and fermented liquors sam-shoo and others. They eat with small wooden or ivory sticks, called chop-sticks kwai-tze ; they know the use of the fork cha-tze , the spoon piao-keng , and the knife tao.

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Festivals The first day of the first moon Yuan-tan or New Year's Day, is the occasion of great festivity. The first full moon of the year is the Feast of Lanterns Shang-yuan-tsieh , when lanterns of various forms, colours, and materials are suspended before each door. The fifth day of the fifth month is the Feast of the Dragon's Boats T'ien-chung-sieh , instituted in the memory of the statesman K'iu Yuan, who drowned himself in the river Mi-lo, an affluent of the Tung-ting lake, in the fourth century B.

Other festivals are those of the village gods T'u-ti-tan , of the god of literature Wen-ch'ang-tan , of Sakyamuni, Kwan-yn, Confucius , etc. On 9 Oct. Kennelly Shanghai, APA citation.

Cordier, H. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. MLA citation. Cordier, Henri. New York: Robert Appleton Company, This article was transcribed for New Advent by M. Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. November 1, Remy Lafort, S. Contact information.