Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS

The Sixth Extinction?
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS book. Happy reading Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS Pocket Guide. Another brilliantly funny, rhyming read-aloud picture book, jam-packed with cute puppies and silliness from the bestselling, multi-award-winning creators of Oi Frog! In this wise, witty, open-hearted book, Nadiya lets us into her life and, for the first time, shares the memories and experiences that have shaped her into the woman and role-model that she is today, alongside her personal recipes and the stories they tell. With an introduction and original illustrations by Billy throughout, it is an inspirational, energetic and riotously funny read, and a fitting celebration of our greatest ever comedian.

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We use cookies to enhance your visit to us. Chytrid fungi are older even than amphibians—the first species evolved more than six hundred million years ago—and even more widespread. In a manner of speaking, they can be found—they are microscopic—just about everywhere, from the tops of trees to deep underground.

Generally, chytrid fungi feed off dead plants; there are also species that live on algae, species that live on roots, and species that live in the guts of cows, where they help break down cellulose. Until two pathologists, Don Nichols and Allan Pessier, identified a weird microorganism growing on dead frogs from the National Zoo, chytrids had never been known to attack vertebrates.

Indeed, the new chytrid was so unusual that an entire genus had to be created to accommodate it. Nichols and Pessier sent samples from the infected frogs to a mycologist at the University of Maine, Joyce Longcore, who managed to culture the Bd fungus. They then exposed healthy blue poison-dart frogs to it. Within three weeks, the animals sickened and died.


The discovery of Bd explained many of the data that had previously seemed so puzzling. Chytrid fungi generate microscopic spores that disperse in water; these could have been carried along by streams, or in the runoff after a rainstorm, producing what in Central America showed up as an eastward-moving scourge. In the case of zoos, the spores could have been brought in on other frogs or on tracked-in soil. Bd seemed to be able to live on just about any frog or toad, but not all amphibians are as susceptible to it, which would account for why some populations succumbed while others appeared to be unaffected.

The Big Kill

Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS eBook: Francois GOULET: Kindle Store. [PDF] Thousand Collectors PDF Series Books - FROGS by Francois GOULET. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read .

Rick Speare is an Australian pathologist who identified Bd right around the same time that the National Zoo team did. From the pattern of decline, Speare suspected that Bd had been spread by an amphibian that had been moved around the globe. One of the few species that met this condition was Xenopus laevis , commonly known as the African clawed frog. In the early nineteen-thirties, a British zoologist named Lancelot Hogben discovered that female Xenopus laevis , when injected with certain types of human hormones, laid eggs.

His discovery became the basis for a new kind of pregnancy test and, starting in the late nineteen-thirties, thousands of African clawed frogs were exported out of Cape Town. In the nineteen-forties and fifties, it was not uncommon for obstetricians to keep tanks full of the frogs in their offices. To test his hypothesis, Speare began collecting samples from live African clawed frogs and also from specimens preserved in museums. He found that specimens dating back to the nineteen-thirties were indeed already carrying the fungus.

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He also found that live African clawed frogs were widely infected with Bd, but seemed to suffer no ill effects from it. In , he co-authored an influential paper that argued that the transmission route for the fungus began in southern Africa and ran through clinics and hospitals around the world. At this point, Bd appears to be, for all intents and purposes, unstoppable.

It can be killed by bleach—Clorox is among the donors to EVACC —but it is impossible to disinfect an entire rain forest.

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Sometime in the last year or so, the fungus jumped the Panama Canal. When Edgardo Griffith swabbed the frogs on our trip, he was collecting samples that would eventually be analyzed for it. It also seems to be heading into Panama from the opposite direction, out of Colombia. It has spread through the highlands of South America, down the eastern coast of Australia, and into New Zealand, and has been detected in Italy, Spain, and France.

In the U. Phillips fixed as the dividing point between the first and second eras what would now be called the end-Permian extinction, and between the second and the third the end-Cretaceous event. The fossils from these eras were so different that Phillips thought they represented three distinct episodes of creation. Drawing on the work of the eminent geologist Charles Lyell, a good friend of his, Darwin maintained that the apparent discontinuities in the history of life were really just gaps in the archive.

With respect to the apparently sudden extermination of whole families or orders, as of Trilobites at the close of the palaeozoic period and of Ammonites at the close of the secondary period, we must remember what has been already said on the probable wide intervals of time between our consecutive formations; and in these intervals there may have been much slow extermination.

Alvarez and some colleagues had found that a certain formation of pinkish limestone in Italy, known as the scaglia rossa , recorded these occasional reversals. The limestone also contained the fossilized remains of millions of tiny sea creatures called foraminifera. In the course of several trips to Italy, Alvarez became interested in a thin layer of clay in the limestone that seemed to have been laid down around the end of the Cretaceous. Below the layer, certain species of foraminifera—or forams, for short—were preserved.

In the clay layer there were no forams. Above the layer, the earlier species disappeared and new forams appeared. Alvarez decided to try to find out how long it had taken for the clay layer to be deposited. In , he took a post at the University of California at Berkeley, where his father, the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Luis Alvarez, was also teaching.

The older Alvarez suggested using the element iridium to answer the question. Iridium is extremely rare on the surface of the earth, but more plentiful in meteorites, which, in the form of microscopic grains of cosmic dust, are constantly raining down on the planet.

There have been five great die-offs in history. This time, the cataclysm is us.

Sometime in the last year or so, the fungus jumped the Panama Canal. You may not be 'too crazy' about the idea, but we have no choice: You and I must go underground and face Worm. To foster creativity and encourage collaboration, the interior is full of natural light with optimal acoustics and clear sight lines. B Liz needs Ted to buy some ingredients for her. On previous expeditions, the water was tested in the summer, using ships at sea, but they had never collected it from under the ice before. A feather, then, cannot be labeled the sole product of either natural or sexual selection. Exercises Put together an analysis of the major elements of entrepreneurial venturing and sustainability innovation applied to Project Frog.

They enlisted two other scientists, Frank Asaro and Helen Michel, to run the tests, and gave them samples of the clay. Nine months later, they got a phone call. There was something seriously wrong. Much too much iridium was showing up in the samples. Walter Alvarez flew to Denmark to take samples of another layer of exposed clay from the end of the Cretaceous. When they were tested, these samples, too, were way out of line. The Alvarez hypothesis, as it became known, was that everything—the clay layer from the scaglia rossa , the clay from Denmark, the spike in iridium, the shift in the fossils—could be explained by a single event.

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In , the Alvarezes and their colleagues proposed that a six-mile-wide asteroid had slammed into the earth, killing off not only the forams but the dinosaurs and all the other organisms that went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. Nevertheless, the idea was greeted with incredulity. Over the next decade, evidence in favor of an enormous impact kept accumulating.

Geologists looking at rocks from the end of the Cretaceous in Montana found tiny mineral grains that seemed to have suffered a violent shock.

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Other geologists, looking in other parts of the world, found small, glasslike spheres of the sort believed to form when molten-rock droplets splash up into the atmosphere. In , that crater was dated, and discovered to have been formed at precisely the time the dinosaurs died off. And what you saw was people looking at the evidence. And they gradually did come to change their minds. One theory holds that the impact raised a cloud of dust that blocked the sun, preventing photosynthesis and causing widespread starvation.

According to another theory, the impact kicked up a plume of vaporized rock travelling with so much force that it broke through the atmosphere. The particles in the plume then recondensed, generating, as they fell back to earth, enough thermal energy to, in effect, broil the surface of the planet. The fossil record, it turned out, was marked by discontinuities because the history of life was marked by discontinuities.

In the nineteenth century, and then again during the Second World War, the Adirondacks were a major source of iron ore. As a result, the mountains are now riddled with abandoned mines. On a gray day this winter, I went to visit one of the mines I was asked not to say which with a wildlife biologist named Al Hicks. Hicks, who is fifty-four, is tall and outgoing, with a barrel chest and ruddy cheeks.

He works at the headquarters of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, in Albany, and we met in a parking lot not far from his office. From there, we drove almost due north. Along the way, Hicks explained how, in early , he started to get a lot of strange calls about bats. Sometimes it was about a live—or half-alive—bat flapping around on the driveway.

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This was in the middle of winter, when any bat in the Northeast should have been hanging by its feet in a state of torpor. Then, in March, , some colleagues went to do a routine census of hibernating bats in a cave west of Albany. After the survey, they, too, phoned in. He instructed them to bring some carcasses back to the office, which they did. When Hicks examined the photographs, he saw that the animals looked as if they had been dunked, nose first, in talcum powder.

This was something he had never run across before, and he began sending the photographs to all the bat specialists he could think of. None of them could explain it, either. Meanwhile, bats kept dying. In some hibernacula, populations plunged by as much as ninety-seven per cent. That winter, officials at the National Wildlife Health Center, in Madison, Wisconsin, began to look into the situation. They were able to culture the white substance, which was found to be a never before identified fungus that grows only at cold temperatures.

The condition became known as white-nose syndrome, or W. White nose seemed to be spreading fast; by March, , it had been found on bats in three more states—Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut—and the mortality rate was running above seventy-five per cent. This past winter, white nose was found to have spread to bats in five more states: New Jersey, New Hampshire, Virginia, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. When we arrived at the base of a mountain not far from Lake Champlain, more than a dozen people were standing around in the cold, waiting for us.

Most, like Hicks, were from the D. In addition, there was a pair of biologists from the U. Fish and Wildlife Service and a local novelist who was thinking of incorporating a subplot about white nose into his next book. The snow was icy and the going slow, so it took almost half an hour to reach an outlook over the Champlain Valley. While we were waiting for the novelist to catch up—apparently, he was having trouble hiking through the three-foot-deep drifts—the conversation turned to the potential dangers of entering an abandoned mine. These, I was told, included getting crushed by falling rocks, being poisoned by a gas leak, and plunging over a sheer drop of a hundred feet or more.

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After another fifteen minutes or so, we reached the mine entrance—essentially, a large hole cut into the hillside. The stones in front of the entrance were white with bird droppings, and the snow was covered with paw prints. Evidently, ravens and coyotes had discovered that the spot was an easy place to pick up dinner.

Bats were fluttering in and out of the mine, and in some cases crawling on the ground. Hicks went to catch one; it was so lethargic that he grabbed it on the first try. He held it between his thumb and forefinger, snapped its neck, and placed it in a ziplock bag. What is known is that bats with the syndrome often wake up from their torpor and fly around, which leads them to die either of starvation or of the cold or to get picked off by predators.

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We unstrapped our snowshoes and put on helmets. Hicks handed out headlamps—we were supposed to carry at least one extra—and packages of batteries; then we filed into the mine, down a long, sloping tunnel. Shattered beams littered the ground, and bats flew up at us through the gloom. Hicks cautioned everyone to stay alert. The tunnel twisted along, sometimes opening up into concert-hall-size chambers with side tunnels leading out of them. Over the years, the various sections of the mine had acquired names; when we reached something called the Don Thomas section, we split up into groups to start the survey.

The process consisted of photographing as many bats as possible. Later on, back in Albany, someone would have to count all the bats in the pictures. I went with Hicks, who was carrying an enormous camera, and one of the biologists from the Fish and Wildlife Service, who had a laser pointer. The biologist would aim the pointer at a cluster of bats hanging from the ceiling. Hicks would then snap a photograph. Here at FadedPage and our companion site Distributed Proofreaders Canada , we pride ourselves on producing the best ebooks you can find.

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